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Delaware Department of Transportation

Enhancing Delaware Highways

Roadside Vegetation Establishment and Management Manual

  • Complete Manual
  • For users on slower connections, we offer four segmented downloads.
  • Covers
  • Acknowledgements
  • Table of Contents
  • Introduction
    • DelDOT Roadside Vegetation Policy
    • Purpose of the Establishment and Management Manual
    • Integrated Roadside Vegetation Management Program
    • Environmental Stewardship and Public Perception
    • Audience
    • Goals and Objectives
  • Establishing Vegetation
    • Establishing Vegetation Introduction
    • Site Conditions
      • Roadway limitations
      • Soil and water conditions
        • Soil compaction
        • Soil pH
        • Lack of topsoil
        • Erosion control
        • Contamination
        • Drainage issues
    • Site Preparation
      • Conserving indigenous plant communities
        • Plant community inventory
        • Weed control in plant communities
        • Selective removal of vegetation
      • Removing undesirable vegetation
        • Removal strategies
        • Removal methods
      • Soil preparation
        • Grading
        • Topsoil
        • Soil amendment/nutrition
        • Tillage
        • Site preparation equipment
      • Case study examples of site preparation
    • Establishment Using Seed
      • Seed characteristics
        • Purity
        • Inert matter
        • Weed seeds
        • Other crop seed
        • Germination
        • Pure live seed (PLS)
        • Variety
        • Cleaned seed
        • Certified seed
        • Provenance
        • Seed dormancy
        • DelDOT standard specifications
      • Vegetation types established by seed
        • Temporary cover
        • Regularly mowed turf
        • Low growing turf
        • Grass meadows
        • Mixed grass and forb meadows
      • Methods of seeding
        • Broadcast seeding
        • Hydroseeding
        • Drill seeding
        • Topdressing
    • Establishment Using Vegetative Material
      • Types of vegetative material
        • Sod
        • Plugs
        • Bare-root plants
        • Container-grown plants
        • Balled and burlapped plants
      • Methods of planting
        • Sodding
        • Plugging
        • Bare-root planting
        • Container-grown planting
        • Balled and burlapped planting
        • Tree spading
      • Plant acquisition
        • Inspection
        • Contract growing
    • Mulching
      • Seeded sites
        • Straw mulching
        • Cereal grain straw
        • Salt hay mulch
        • Bonded fiber matrix
        • Soil retention blanket mulches
      • Landscape beds
    • Irrigation
    • Design and Stakeout of Landscape Planting Projects
    • Replacement
  • Managing Vegetation
    • IRVM Objectives
    • Roadside Features
      • Guardrails
      • Medians
      • Roadsides
      • Beds
      • Stormwater best management practices
      • Stormwater mitigation sites
    • Design Approaches
      • Regional
      • Regional-ornamental
      • Fully ornamental
    • Vegetation Reduction Techniques
      • Discontinued mowing or release
      • Editing
      • Cutting back
      • Mowing
        • Routine mowing
        • Periodic mowing
        • Equipment
    • Pruning
      • Reasons for pruning
      • Pruning tools
      • Pruning techniques
        • Natural target pruning
        • Pruning sequence
        • Pruning timing
        • Complete removal
        • Cutback
    • Trash Accumulation
    • Weeds
      • Weed classification
        • Plant type
        • Life cycle
    • Weed Control
      • Control methods
        • Cultural
        • Biological
        • Mechanical
        • Chemical
      • Herbicide safety
      • Herbicide use
      • Herbicide mode of action
        • Contact herbicides
        • Systemic herbicides
      • Herbicide selectivity
        • Nonselective herbicides
        • Selective herbicides
          • Plant factors
          • Application factors
          • Environmental factors
      • Herbicide formulations
        • Liquids or aqueous suspensions
        • Emulsifiable concentrates
        • Solutions
        • Liquefied gases
        • Wettable powders
        • Water dispersible granules and dry flowables
        • Soluble powders
        • Granules
      • Application equipment
        • Conventional sprayers
        • Backpack sprayers
        • Rope-wick applicators
        • Controlled droplet applications
        • Granular spreaders
          • Gravitational drop spreaders
          • Mechanically fed drop spreaders
          • Centrifugal or rotary spreaders
        • Equipment calibration
        • Cleaning and care of equipment
      • Calculating application rates
      • Additional application methods
        • Stem cutting
        • Basal bark treatment
        • Bare ground vegetation control
      • Spray drift control
      • Specific recommendations
        • Invasive woody plants
        • Meadows
        • Stormwater ponds
        • Wetland mitigation sites
      • Sensitive areas
      • Product policies
    • Fertilization
      • Turf
      • Trees and shrubs
      • Lime
    • Problems
      • Insect and disease
      • Cultural problems
        • Compaction
        • Excess mulch
        • Trunk, bark, branch and root damage
        • Supports, wire, twine and tree wrap
        • Salt damage
        • Soil grade changes
      • Diagnosing problems
        • Root flare
        • Crown dieback
        • Abnormal leaf size
        • Trunk scars
        • Yellow foliage
    • Record Keeping
      • DelDOT forms
    • Inventories
      • Guardrails
      • Existing stormwater system
      • Noxious and invasive weeds
    • Training Program
  • Glossary
  • Literature Cited
  • Appendix A - Herbicides How-to Information
  • Appendix B - Pesticide Application Daily Report Form
  • Appendix C - Selected Weed Species Control Recommendations
  • Appendix D - SOPs from DelDOT - handling spills; calibration; spray mixes
  • Appendix E - Structural Soil
  • Appendix F - Modular Paving
  • Appendix G - Herbicides Approved for Use on DelDOT Rights of Way
  • Appendix H - References


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